"Amerika Mengusir China" - RADAR RAKYAT

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"Amerika Mengusir China"




RadarRakyat.Info-
Salah satu kasus yang menonjol dalam dua tahun pemerintahan Jokowi-Jusuf Kalla adalah membanjirnya imigran China ke Indonesia. Paling tidak ada 1,3 juta orang China baru masuk ke Indonesia. Mereka umumnya  buruh-buruh kasar dan angkatan kerja yang masih produktif.

Bagi pemerintah China, mengekspor jutaan tenaga kasar ini suatu keharusan. Saat ini di China, ada 45 juta tenaga kerja menganggur yang menunggu pekerjaan. Hal itu karena melambatnya pertumbuhan ekonomi China, sehingga banyak yang di PHK. Kedua banyak pabrik ditutup karena masuknya era teknologi baru dimana tenaga “unskill” alias buruh kasar kurang dibutuhkan lagi.

Seiring dengan kebijakkan politik Luar Negeri era Jokowi ini sangat berporos ke China, dimana hutang baru mengucur dari China, maka penerimaan buruh-buruh China ini adalah satu paket dengan pinjaman dari pemerintah China. Contoh yang mencolok adalah reklamasi pantai di di Kepulauan Seribu. Dari tanaga ahli sampai tukang pasang batunya harus dari China. Begitu juga pembangunan kereta cepat Bandung- Jakarta, mayoritas tenaga kerjanya juga dari China.

Membanjirnya  buruh dengan jumlah jutaan dari China ini jelas akan menimbulkan konflik sosial, politik dan budaya. Seperti diketahui, perekonomian di tanah air kita sangat pincang. Satu persen penduduk menguasai 70% hajat hidup dan sumber daya rakyat. Artinya dari 260 juta penduduk  Ada 2,6 juta penduduk yang sangat kaya. Dari 2,6 juta ini 80% nya adalah mata sipit. Atau dua jutaan orang kaya tersebut adalah non-Muslim. Ini berarti dua juta orang kaya menguasai kehidupan 250 jutaan warga.

Turunan dalam dunia bisnis dapat dilihat, kalau berjalan di jalan Sudirman, trus ke  menelusuri jalan Thamrin, lihatlah kiri-kanan dengan gedung-gedung  menjulang tinggi, lalu kita bertanya siapa yang punya? Satu dua ada milik pemerintah, selebihnya milik konglomerat. Kalau mau ditanya rasnya pasti dengan mudah sebagian besar bukan pribumi. Jangan dulu kita tanya apa agamanya.

Turunan berikutnya adalah siapa yang  punya pabrik yang padat modal atau padat karya yang sanggup menampung karyawan sampai ratusan ribu orang?  Turun lagi ke bawah, siapa yang menguasai bisnis pariwisata dengan hotel, maskapai? Siapa yang menguasai bisnis properti beserta produk turunannya?  begitu juga kalau dilanjutkan pertanyaannya, siapa yang menguasai bisnis  pendidikan dan kesehatan? Siapa yang memiliki rumah sakit swasta yang kian menjamur? Begitu juga sekolah swasta yang terang-terangan dengan misi misionaris. Turunan berikutnya dapat ditelusuri dengan kepemilikkan industry farmasi dengan ribuan merk  obat-obatan. Jawaban ringkasnya adalah pemilik semua itu adalah bukan PRIBUMI.

Sebagai perbandingan bagaimana lemahnya pribumi dapat dilihat pada aktifitas  organisasi kemasyarakatannya, salah satunya  Muhammadiyah. Muhammadiyah dikenal dengan organisasi Islam modern yang bergerak dalam bidang pendidikan, sosial, dan kemasyarakatan. Di usianya yang sudah lebih satu abad,  Muhammadiyah saat ini memiliki sekitar 45 rumah sakit dan klinik kesehatan. Dengan kondisi seperti itu, Muhammadiyah baru berencana memmbangun pabrik obat-obatan untuk kepentingan beberapa rumah sakit yang dimiliki. Alias tidak punya pabrik obat-obatan. Itu sudah sekelas Muhammadiyah, belum dihitung organisasi lain.

Karena kondisi kehidupan ekonomi yang pincang ini, harapan kaum pribumi adalah tetap terbukanya lapangan pekerjaan untuk menatap hari esok yang labih baik. Sekarang dengan datangnya buruh-buruh kasar  dan tenaga professional dari China, maka pasti jatah pekerjaan yang ada untuk pribumi ada disikat oleh pekerja illegal dari China itu. Dus, disini  untuk mendapatkan lapangan pekerjaan sulit untuk tidak terjadi konflik horizontal.

 AS Mengusir China

Permasalahan sekarang dengan ketimpangan yang demikian parah, mengapa Indonesia menjadi pilihan?

Sterling Seagrave dalam bukunya, Lords of the Rim (1996)  yang membahas tentang gurita bisnis China Rantau menjelaskan, sebenarnya  sejak abad ke-19 M , Amerika Serikat sudah menjadi pilihan bagi imigran China. Hanya di Negara Paman Sam itu mereka menghadapi tantangan berat. Ada tiga tantangan  yang dihadapi imigran China di AS dari dula sampai sekarang.

Pertama, tantangan budaya. Imigran China yang datang ke Amerika, hanya dalam waktu singkat mereka sudah kehilangan budaya China. Karena larut dalam budaya  bebas Amerika. Para orang tua China jelas tidak menghendaki perubahan budaya secara drastis ini. Perantau China tetap ingin mempertahankan tradisi Konghucu pada anak-anak mereka. Diantaranya menghormati orang tua dan leluhur China. Untuk membedung arus budaya Amerika yang dahsyat ini, para perantau China membuat kelompok “Pechinan”. Hampir tiap kota yang ada komunitas China, mereka biasanya membentuk pechinan (China Town).

Kedua, masalah pajak. Amerika menerapkan peraturan pajak yang sangat ketat. Setiap warga Amerika dan mereka yang memiliki green card AS wajib membayar pajak ke Amerika dimanapun mereka bekerja. Baik di dalam maupun di luar Amerika. Sistim wajib pajak ketat seperti Amerika ini tidak membuat “happy” imigran China.


Pendatang China ini sangat agresive merambah segala jenis bidang usaha.  Mulai dari bisnis illegal seperti penyeludupan, human traficking, pelacuran, narkoba, perjudian, sampai bisnis rumah makan, panti pijat dan laundry.  Saegrave (1996) menjelaskan para perantau China ini menyeludupkan manusia masuk Amerika lalu dari Amerika diseludupkan mobil Cadilac, Roll Royce  dan barang mewah ke China untuk pejabat dan orang-orang kaya China. Usaha mereka ini mendapat keuntungan berlipat karena illegal dan tidak terendus pejabat bea cukai. Biasanya polisi lepas pantai Amerika sengaja membiarkan penyeludupan itu berjalan untuk beberapa waktu, setelah itu mereka ditangkap, barangnya disita, ditambah membayar pajak yang berat.

Ketiga, sikap brutal Amerika. Gaya koboy dalam film-film Amerika betul-betul mereka terapkan terhadap imigran China.  Dengan tantangan budaya dan undang-undang perpajakkan yang ketat, imigran China masuk AS tetap tinggi.  Akibatnya lapangan pekerjaan warga kulit putih terancam. Banyak warga kulit putih yang menganggur. Menariknya adalah penyelesaian yang dilakukan. Seperti dikenal dengan Yellow Peril, warga Amerika mengusir China untuk kembali ke negerinya. Caranya adalah dengan menimbulkan kerusuhan, gerombolan masyarakat datang, lalu  orang-orang China dibakar hidup-hidup di api unggun, ditembaki seperti menembaki babi yang sudah endemik,  hartanya dirampas.

Ketika resesi melanda pantai barat pada 1880-an, lapangan kerja menyempit, di San Francisco dan Seattle, pengusaha kulit putih mengambil pekerja China karena  upah murah. Akibatnya gerombolan kulit putih membantai orang China secara sadis. Ribuan orang China lari pulang ke Asia.  Lebih separoh orang China meninggalkan Amerika.  Data penduduk China pada 1890 ada 107.488 warga China yang tinggal di San Francisco. Tiga puluh tahun kemudian yaitu 1920, jumlah warga China hanya 61.639 orang.

Artinya lebih separoh warga China hengkang dari Amerika.  Perlakuan masyarakat AS yang kasar dan sadis ini dibenarkan oleh pemerintah AS. Buktinya perlakuan sadis terhadap China itu diperkuat oleh undang-undang yang bersifat rasis dan disahkan oleh Kongres 1882. Dalam UU itu menegaskan tentang pelarangan masuk semua orang China ke Amerika, kecuali guru, mahasiswa, pedagang, dan wisatawan.

Sekarang dengan terpilihnya Donald Trump sebagai presiden AS yang mulai menempati Gedung putih pada 20 Januari 2017 ini imigran China makin takut masuk AS. Seperti diketahui dalam tema kampanye Trump adalah anti terhadap imigran. Maka salah-salah Trump juga akan menggunakan cara-cara koboy untuk mengusir pendatang haram ke AS. Itulah mengapa Asia Tenggara tetap menjadi pilihan utama para pendatang illegal China.  Mereka tetap bisa ber “Gong Xi Fa Chai”, leluasa berbinis hitam, aparat mudah disuap dan bebas dari incaran pajak. Bahkan tokoh-tokoh agamanya sangat menghormati orang China. 

Wallahu a’lam. 
Tabrani Syabirin     (sic)

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